February 11 is the International Day of Women and Girls in Science. Over the past 15 years, the global community has made many efforts to inspire and involve women and girls in science.
Although science and gender equality are both essential to achieving internationally accepted development goals, women and girls still continue to be excluded from full participation in science.
Currently, fewer than 30% of researchers worldwide are women. According to UNESCO data (2014 - 2016), only about 30% of all female students choose STEM-related fields in higher education. Globally, the concentration of female students is particularly low in ICT (3%), natural sciences, mathematics and statistics (5%) and in engineering, manufacturing and construction (8%).
Prolonged prejudices and gender stereotypes sometimes seem to alienate girls and women from science-related fields. To achieve full, equal access to and participation in science for women and girls, and to further achieve gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution A / RES / 70/222 , announcing February 11 as International Women and Girls Day in Science.
The UN over the years has encouraged all governments to invest in women and girls in science for inclusive growth in National, Regional and International Development Agenda, including new research infrastructures and centers to foster research and scientific development.
Some of the most famous women with scientific contributions throughout history:
1.Caroline Herschel - German astronomer (1750-1848)
She may have been just a little over 1.2 mi tall, but she was the woman who with her discoveries contributed to our understanding of space.
She was the first woman to discover a comet, and in recognition of her work was employed by King George, thus becoming the first woman to be paid for scientific work.
2.Mary Anning - Fossil Researcher (1799-1847)
Anning's unusual and often bizarre discoveries helped shift scientific thought away from biblical stories and opened up the field of paleontology.
3. Dorothy Hodgkin - British Chemist (1910-1994)
Known for her advances in X-ray Christography, Hodgkin was able to determine the atomic structure of cholesterol, penicillin, and vitamin B12, from which she won the 1964 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958)
Franklin's research data were the first to demonstrate the basic dimensions of DNA strands. Her data were used by James Watson and Francis Crick to continue their research on the DNA model, and were published separately as supporting data alongside research papers by Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins.
Many in the scientific community argue that Franklin should have received a Nobel Prize along with Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins, who won the 1962 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine “for their discoveries regarding the molecular structure of nucleic acids. and their relevance to information transfer to living material ”.
5.Sally Ride (1951-2012) - NASA astronaut
Sally Ride became the first American woman in space, serving as a mission specialist on the Challenger spacecraft in 1983. At the age of 32, she was also the youngest American to ever leave the atmosphere. (However, she was not the first woman in space - that title belongs to Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova.)
Nobel Prize-winning women throughout history:
1903 - Marie Curie
1963 - Maria Goeppert-Mayer
2018 - Donna Strickland
1911 - Marie Curie
1935 - Irene Joliot-Curie
1964 - Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
2009 - Ada Yonath
2018 - Frances Arnold
1947 - Gerty Cori
1977 - Rosalyn Yalow
1983 - Barbara Mçlintock
1986 - Rita Levi-Montalcini
1988 - Gertrude Elion
1995 - Christiane Nuesslein-Volhard
2004 - Linda Buck
2008 - Francoise Barre-Sinoussi
2009 - Elizabeth Blackburn
2009 - Carol Greider
2014 - May-Britt Moser
2015 - Youyou Tu